Why Do Pre Workouts Make You Poop

Why Do Pre Workouts Make You Poop. You take a pre-workout supplement on your way to the gym to get your body ready for the grueling workout.

While exercising, you may begin to feel a familiar need to urinate before, during, or after your workout. Almost everyone who takes pre-workout supplements experiences this, and it may be regarded a normal occurrence.

As a result, we’re confident you’ll always wonder why a pre-workout makes you need the bathroom. Is it completely eliminated from your body?

If this is the case, then how does it aid in boosting your workout performance and energy levels? If you’re wondering why pre-workout pills cause bowel motions, you’ll find out in this article!

What is pre workout?

Pre-workout is a substance that you take before you begin your workout. A pre-workout combination is designed to boost your energy, attention, and endurance before a workout..

Caffeine, creatine, nitric oxide, and various amino acids are examples of common supplements.

Most common ingredients of pre workouts

Tea made from leaves of the green tea plant.

Pre-workouts are commonly supplemented with green tea extract, which has been shown to decrease body fat. Green tea pre-workout pills generally include between 100mg and 250mg of the herb.

Using such modest dosages of green tea, there is little evidence that it has any benefit. Even when high dosages (300mg-600mg) are taken over a lengthy period of time, the results are varied.

Benefits of green tea:

  • contains bioactive substances that are good for you
  • enhances the brain’s ability
  • increases the rate at which fat is burned.
  • some research suggests that antioxidants may help prevent cancer.
  • the brain may be protected from aging, bad breath reduced, type 2 diabetes prevented, cardiovascular disease avoided.
  • may help you shed pounds and extend your life

B-complex vitamins

B vitamins may be found in a variety of foods, including fish, poultry, and milk. It’s common for pre-workout pills to include B vitamins since they aid in generating energy and hence improve our ability to exercise.

Although exercise may raise the requirement for some B vitamins, particularly B2 and B6, it is doubtful that taking a supplement containing these vitamins will have any effect unless the individual is vitamin deficient.

When used in modest dosages, most of the pre-workout supplement components have been determined to be safe. Taking them late in the day, on the other hand, may be a terrible choice due to the caffeine they contain.

However, some of the unique substances included in certain supplements are cause for caution, as they have not been well investigated or evaluated. They can also cause major issues like liver damage in certain people. Consulting a licensed sports dietitian or nutritionist before beginning a supplement regimen is always a smart idea.

Although pre-workout supplements are one of the fastest-growing sports supplements, there are few chemicals that consistently improve athletic performance when taken in tiny dosages before an exercise, save from caffeine.

Benefits of B-complex vitamins

  • cell wellness.
  • the production of new red blood cells.
  • the state of one’s health in terms of physical stamina, mental sharpness, digestion, hunger, and nerve transmission
  • hormones and the synthesis of triglycerides
  • coronary health.
  • strength.

Creatine

Creatine monohydrate is a naturally occurring molecule that may be found in red meat and shellfish, as well as in human bodies. It is widely believed that creatine, which is commonly included in pre-workout supplements, aids in muscular growth and strength.

Creatine has been shown to improve numerous elements of performance, including sprinting ability, muscular strength, and recovery time following an exercise. However, at least 3g-5g of creatine must be consumed daily to be effective.

Taking 20g of creatine for five days, followed by a maintenance dose of 3g-5g per day, has also been shown to boost athletic performance. However, it has been found that consuming tiny amounts before to exercise has no beneficial effect. Pre-exercise supplements typically include 1.5g-5g of caffeine per dose, so if you take a lot of them at the beginning, you may see some benefit later on.

Benefits of creatine

  • aids in the production of more energy by muscle cells.
  • supports a slew of additional skeletal muscle activities.
  • enhances the effectiveness of high-intensity exercise.
  • increases the rate of muscular gain.
  • Parkinson’s disease may be helped by this.
  • other neurological illnesses may be fought as well.
  • it is possible that this remedy will help people with diabetes by lowering their blood sugar levels.
  • potentially beneficial for the brain.
  • may help alleviate sleepiness and fatigue.
  • it’s safe and simple to use.

Beta-alanine

Beta-alanine is a naturally occurring amino acid in your body. Carnosine is a chemical the body produces as a result of this reaction. During high-intensity exercise, carnosine, which is stored in your muscles, helps to keep the pH level of the muscle stable, which can help postpone exhaustion.

Because of this, several pre-workout pills include beta-alanine to help combat weariness. Even while beta-alanine supplements have been shown to have some positive effects if used regularly for up to six weeks, most pre-workout pills only contain between 350mg-3,200mg of the amino acid.

Except for the tingling sensation that may occur in certain users, there is no evidence that taking tiny quantities before an exercise has any benefit. This is the face of a lady who stares at her smartwatch while clutching a plastic bottle of pre-workout smoothie. There’s no proof that taking beta-alanine before an exercise boosts performance at this time.

Benefits of Beta-alanine

  • increased exercise capacity and reduced muscular exhaustion are two ways in which beta-alanine improves performance.
  • antioxidant, immune-enhancing, and anti-aging qualities are also found in this supplement.
  • Beta-alanine can be found in meals that contain carnosine, or you can take a supplement to receive it.
  • doses of 2–5 grams per day are advised.

Caffeine

Most pre-workout pills contain caffeine as a stimulant to relieve weariness and boost alertness. For endurance sports like running or cycling, taking a cup of coffee 30-60 minutes before activity can boost performance by up to 20 percent throughout an hour-long workout. Additionally, you may notice a difference in the intensity of your workout.

When used at high levels (about 375 mg-975 mg for a 75 kg individual), caffeine can cause stomach distress, confusion, and poor sleep in some people. These are the most common adverse effects people describe when taking large dosages.

Caffeine content in one cup of brewed coffee is a measly 75 milligrams (mg). The most effective and least harmful levels have been found to be approximately 3mg per kg of body weight. Caffeine levels range from 85mg to 300mg in most pre-workout products.

While it may seem more convenient to just have a cup of coffee before working out, the caffeine concentration can vary greatly depending on where the coffee is brewed. Taking too much or too little of a supplement is far more difficult to regulate than taking a predetermined quantity.

Amino acids with a branching structure

Another typical element is branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). As a result, they are commonly used in pre-workout supplements to enhance muscle development and decrease tiredness.

Pre-workouts typically have 400mg-1500mg of BCAAs in each serving. Even if they are, there is no evidence that they are useful in increasing muscle mass or decreasing tiredness when taken at these dosages.

When it comes to promoting muscle development and repair, BCAAs normally need to be taken in greater dosages (about 5,000mg) after exercise.

Benefits of pre workouts

Strengthens your body

There are various ways pre-workouts help you build strength. Pre-workouts not only help you build muscle, but they also boost your metabolism, allowing you to work out longer and gain more strength over time.

Creatine is arguably the most significant pre-workout supplement component for increasing strength. Creatine boosts your body’s energy-boosting metabolic systems at the cellular level. Strength, muscular mass, and endurance are all boosted by creatine.

It’s easier for your body to transport more amino acids and other nutrients to your muscles when nitrate is present in pre-workout supplements. As a result of this, you will be able to exert yourself more throughout training and competition, increasing your strength. Nitrate is an efficient food source for your muscles. As a consequence, your strength will be improved.

Your endurance is boosted

Removing the mechanisms that lead to exhaustion is the most effective strategy to increase one’s overall endurance. Pre-workout vitamins accomplish this in two key ways.

Caffeine is a stimulant. Like a strong cup of coffee or an espresso, pre-workout caffeine boosts your energy and stamina so that you can push yourself to your limits during a grueling workout.

An other major obstacle to endurance training is muscular pain. Acid accumulation in your muscles is the primary culprit. Beta-alanine, an amino acid commonly found in pre-workout supplements, helps to counteract this.

Acids are flushed out of your body, particularly from your muscles, by this molecule. The buildup of acid that produces the burn during severe training is reduced by beta-alanine. As a consequence, you’ll be able to work out longer and harder.

Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), another pre-workout substance that helps minimize muscle acid accumulation, is another option. There is clinical evidence to support the use of sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of muscular acidosis. To your advantage, you will be able to train for longer periods of time and with more intensity.

L-theanine is a substance found in several pre-workout supplements. Caffeine’s anxiety-inducing effects can be reduced by combining this with green tea, which has been shown to have a synergistic impact.

For Muscle Building Purposes

Amino acids are the primary building blocks of muscle. Essential amino acids are found in high concentrations in pre-workout supplements. Branched-chain amino acid contents are particularly high in these products (BCAAs).

It’s important to remember that these three amino acids are directly involved in the production of muscle protein. In this way, BCAAs bypass the digestive process, allowing them to be utilized directly for muscular growth.

BCAAs, citrulline, and other pre-workout supplements are all included. This is a different kind of amino acid altogether. Citrulline is very effective in increasing blood flow to the muscles. Muscles receive additional oxygen and nutrients during exercise as a result of this mechanism. The end result is stronger, more efficient muscles that can withstand longer and more intensive workouts.

Citrulline and BCAAs are a potent muscle-building supplement combo.

The side effects of pre workout

Side effects of caffein

When taken in excess, caffeine can have a number of undesirable side effects. Some of these symptoms include tiredness, a rapid heartbeat, nausea and a feeling of agitation or restlessness.

Caffeinated pre-workout supplements can have negative effects, so the best method to minimize them is to begin with a modest amount and gradually increase it until your body can handle it.

Side effects of creatine

Creatine’s most common negative effects include water retention, bloating, weight gain, and digestive problems, all of which are minor.

By following the directions on the label, you can avoid unpleasant side effects. A loading phase of 4 scoops (20 grams) each day for at least three days is followed by a 3–5-gram daily maintenance dosage of creatine.

This approach is quick and effective, but it also has a higher risk of causing stomach problems and bloating.

Alternatively, if you don’t mind waiting 3–4 weeks to see results, you can take a single daily dose of 3–6 grams. If you have a sensitive stomach or wish to prevent side effects like bloating, this is the ideal choice for you.

Side effects of beta alanine

When you go out, your muscles become more acidic, and beta alanine, an amino acid, might help you keep going longer.

High-intensity activities lasting 1–4 minutes have indicated that supplementation with 4–6 grams of creatine monohydrate per day improved performance and reduced tiredness.

If you’re concerned about your hands and feet getting paresthesia from this substance, you may want to avoid it. Even though it’s a natural response of the neurological system, some people may find it distressing.

Divide the daily dose of 4–6 grams of beta alanine into two doses of 2–3 grams each for the best results in reducing the tingling caused by beta alanine. Sustained-release formulations, on the other hand, do not have this undesirable side effect.

Digestive upset

Pre-workout supplements contain a number of chemicals that have the potential to irritate the stomach. Sodium bicarbonate, creatine and caffeine are among them.

When eaten at 91–227 mg per pound of body weight (200–500 mg per kilogram), sodium bicarbonate might create issues. The laxative effects of Magnesium, on the other hand, may be due to its citrate form, form of magnesium citrate. As a result, experiencing excessive amounts of diarrhea is possible.

If you mix pre-workout pills with too little water, you might end up with an upset stomach. Diarrhea may result from consuming a drink that is too concentrated.

Adding 8–12 ounces (240–350 ml) of water to your pre-workout pill can help reduce the risk of negative effects. it is also important to eat lots of vegetables with your diet.

Headache

Some pre-workout pills contain citrulline, a substance designed to boost blood flow to your muscles as you exercise, hence promoting muscular growth.

Nitric oxide levels in the blood are raised as a result of this amino acid’s action.

Many pre-workout pills include less than 6–8 grams of citrulline malate, a popular form of this substance, which may not deliver the full advantages of this supplement.

Keep in mind that this increase in blood flow affects both your muscles and your brain, resulting in headaches and migraines for certain people. Keep in mind that. Your brain’s tiny blood arteries are experiencing variations in blood pressure as a result.

Headaches can be reduced by cutting back on your dose.

Pre-workouts with artificial sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners are used as an alternative to sugar in pre-workout supplements. These synthetic sweeteners take a long time to break down.

The bacteria in the colon take a long time to break down these sweeteners once they’ve entered. Methane and carbon dioxide are produced as a result, causing stomach pain.

A trip to the restroom may be necessary if either of these gases is produced. The more artificial sweeteners you use in your ergogenic supplement, the more pain you may experience.

Because of this, it is critical to properly review the supplement’s components list before purchasing a tub of pre-workout.

Pre-workouts that contain artificial sweeteners and magnesium that are taken on an empty stomach before fasting cardiovascular exercises dramatically enhance the likelihood of not having a regular or adequate bowel movement.

Why do pre workouts make you poop

Having a bowel movement after taking your pre-workout smoothie or tablet is thought to be connected to certain chemicals in the pre-workout supplement. Stool-passing urges are induced by these substances, which operate on specific parts of the gut.

The digestive tract consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus, which are all hollow organs. The digestive system’s “solid” organs are the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder, respectively.

While exercising, your stomach muscles get a good work out, which raises your metabolism and makes you pee more frequently. Artificial sweeteners and lactose are among the other substances.

Laxatives are commonly found in pre-workout supplements, which might lead to unplanned toilet stops throughout a workout. Magnesium salts, magnesium nitrate, form of magnesium citrate, and similar laxatives can be found in pre-workout supplements.

As we dig further into each of them, we’ll discover how they interact with the walls of your colon and the function of your bowels.

How to reduce the effects of pre workout

Natural caffein

Selecting a pre-workout supplement with natural caffeine (no artificial ingredient) rather than synthetic caffeine will help you prevent this negative effect. Natural caffeine provides a constant flow of caffeine into your system, preventing jitters and a subsequent crash. In contrast, synthetic caffeine or artificial ingredient can create jitters by delivering a fast energy surge. Natural caffeine may be found on the nutrition label, so have a look!

Drink more water

Drinking additional water or reducing the serving quantity of each item can help alleviate these negative effects. Try to get a pre-workout supplement which contains no more than 500mg of the vitamin B3 niacin.

If you choose, you may exclude both of these substances from your pre-workout supplement. Beta-alanine is a better pre-workout supplement than niacin since it provides additional advantages.

Reduce your citrulline dosage

If you’re still experiencing headaches despite drinking plenty of water. Reduce the dose by anything from 3 to 4 grams to see if it helps. You might want to look for a pre-workout that doesn’t include citrulline if this doesn’t work for you.

List of the best pre workout

Bestseller No. 1
L33T Gaming Powder | Mango Citrus | 30 Servings | 12.7oz | Gaming: Energy + Focus Enhancer
  • LONG LASTING ENERGY AND NO CRASH: L33T Gaming Powder works to quickly provide you with energy that lasts for hours while not leaving you feeling lethargic afterwards
  • ULTIMATE FOCUS: Trademarked ingredients may help you experience higher thinking abilities, better memory, and boost in mood
  • NO JITTERS: Our formula is designed for a smooth uptake that works to prevent you from feeling jittery, so you will be able to perform and feel your best
  • IMPROVED REACTION TIMES: L33T Gaming Powder was designed to help gamers gain the edge over their opponents by being one step ahead of them
  • FLAVOR AND MIXABILITY: Delicious Mango Citrus flavor designed to provide you with a refreshing burst of energy and focus, just add one scoop of powder to 12-14oz of water in a shaker bottle or water bottle and shake for 5-10 seconds
Bestseller No. 2
Neuro Gum Nootropic Cinnamon Flavor Energy Gum | Caffeine + L-theanine + B Vitamins | Sugar Free + Gluten Free + Non GMO + Vegan | Cinnamon Flavor (54 Count)
  • Energy+ Focus+ Clarity: NeuroGum’s quick release formulation contains the ideal balance of nootropics designed to give you a clean and balanced boost.
  • Quick Effects: Our patented cold compression system maximizes the delivery and bioavailability of active ingredients. Get energy 5X faster than drinking coffee or energy drinks.
  • No Crash + No Jitters: Unlike other energy supplements, we only use high quality GRAS ingredients to get you in the zone without the sugar crash or energy drink jitters.
  • Perfect on the go: With 9 pieces of optimum energy that fit right into your pocket, you'll be ready to conquer the world with fresh breath and a fresh mind.
  • Aspartame Free + Sugar Free + Non GMO + Gluten Free:Increase focus and productivity without ingesting artificial forms of energy or a handful of pills.
Bestseller No. 4
ProSupps Mr. Hyde Test Surge Pre Workout with Testosterone Support Matrix for Men and Women - High Stim Pre Workout Powder Drink for Enhanced Drive, Power and Focus (Cherry Limeade, 30 Servings)
  • TESTOSTERONE SUPPORT MATRIX: Our pre workout offers 2X the energy of the Leading Brand plus Iconic HaloX Testosterone Boosting Matrix that helps inhibit aromatase for an improved testosterone to estrogen ratio plus improved cortisol levels for stress and testosterone management. This energy powder is good for men and women who are looking for a pre-workout that amplifies testosterone and power all of their performances both in and out of the weight room.
  • ENHANCED PERFORMANCE: This pre workout drink increases your drive, power, energy and focus, while enhancing your stamina and performance. With heaps of adrenaline-driving ingredients, the formula of our pre workouts delivers the perfect balance of maximum power and strength, and relentless energy, while boosting recovery and reducing the negative effects of cortisol.
  • BANNED SUBSTANCE TESTED: Athletes and fitness advocates can trust ProSupps Mr. Hyde Test Surge pre workout powder, knowing that our products are not only effective, but certified for use in most sports to help them train harder and longer. Our pre workout energy powder is Informed Choice Certified which has undergone rigorous routine testing and manufacturing audits and have been tested for more than 220 banned substances prohibited in sport by LGC’s world-class anti-doping labs.
  • NO SUGAR, NO CALORIES: This pre-workout powder is gluten-free and has no sugar, carbs and calories to provide you a safe boost of energy before your training. Our preworkout powder drink is perfect if you're pushing through your daily cardio to burn fats and intensify endurance to fight off fatigue.
  • HIGH STIM PRE WORKOUT: ProSupps Mr. Hyde Test Surge Pre Workout with Testosterone support has ingredients kick-in at a special sequence and duration to assure maximum support throughout your entire gym, training session, or during intense sports activity. Our pre workout with creatine has caffeine to provide mega-dose of energy, everlasting endurance and intense drive for elite level performance.
Bestseller No. 5
MatFuel - Energy & Endurance for Jiu Jitsu, BJJ Pre-Workout Capsules
  • INCREASES ENDURANCE FOR BJJ. It won't help your skill level, but it will help you perform what you already know to the best of your ability. You will be able to roll harder and faster than usual without feeling overwhelmed.
  • DECREASES PERCEIVED LEVEL OF EXERTION (doesn't feel like you're trying hard). This special pre-workout blend is focused on boosting endurance and brain function, not strength and power. It feels nothing like typical pre-workouts.
  • NO CRASH OR JITTERY FEELINGS. It is designed so you can feel great taking it every day, which is NOT the case with other pre-workouts.
  • CLEARER THINKING AND BETTER DECISION-MAKING. Since MatFuel energizes the brain as well as the body, you'll think faster, remember things better, and make better decisions while rolling.
  • CONTAINS CAFFEINE from the Guarana Extract. If you take the full 5 capsules, it contains 88mg of caffeine - less than a cup of coffee. Each capsule will contain about 17mg of coffee, so 3 capsules would be similar to a cup of tea.
SaleBestseller No. 6
Liquid I.V. Hydration Multiplier - Lemon Lime - Hydration Powder Packets | Electrolyte Drink Mix | Easy Open Single-Serving Stick | Non-GMO | 16 Sticks
  • Hydration Multiplier is a great-tasting, non-GMO electrolyte drink mix powered by CTT to deliver hydration to the bloodstream faster and more efficiently than water alone. With a sunny mix of citrus notes, Lemon Lime is equal parts zesty and refreshing.
  • Cellular Transport Technology, or CTT, is the breakthrough delivery system, used in all of our products, designed to enhance rapid absorption of water and other key ingredients into the bloodstream.
  • Non-GMO and made with premium ingredients, Hydration Multiplier Electrolyte Powder Drink Mix contains 5 essential vitamins including Vitamins B3, B5, B6, B12 and Vitamin C. It's also gluten-free, soy-free, and dairy-free.
  • CONVENIENCE Single-serving, travel-friendly packets are easy to enjoy on the go. Pour one easy-to-open packet into 16 oz of water, mix or shake, and hydrate.
  • LIQUID I.V. GUARANTEE Returns are not permitted on the marketplace for this product category, however if for any reason you are not satisfied, please message our store through the marketplace messaging interface and we will refund your purchase.
SaleBestseller No. 7
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Pre-Workout, Vitamin D for Immune Support, with Creatine, Beta-Alanine, and Caffeine for Energy, Keto Friendly, Blueberry Lemonade, 30 Servings (Packaging May Vary)
  • VITAMIN D Provides Immune Support
  • PACKAGING MAY VARY - New look, with the same trusted Quality.
  • 175MG OF CAFFEINE- help fuel your mind and body to train at the highest level
  • 3G CREATINE - help support overall performance
  • 1.5G BETA-ALANINE - help support enhanced endurance
  • 1.5G CITRULLINE MALATE - a precursor to nitric oxide
  • 375MG ACETYL-L-CARNITINE HCL and 250MG N-ACETYL-L-TYROSINE
  • BANNED SUBSTANCE TESTED - helps ensure you can trust what you are putting in your body
  • 4 DELICIOUS FLAVORS AVAILABLE - blueberry lemonade, green apple, watermelon candy, fruit punch
SaleBestseller No. 8
HumanN SuperBeets Black Cherry - Beet Root Powder - Nitric Oxide Boost for Blood Pressure, Circulation & Heart Health Support - Non-GMO Superfood Supplement - Natural Black Cherry Flavor, 30 Servings
  • Get Your Blood Flowing – Blood flow and healthy circulation get a powerful boost from beneficial Nitric Oxide. SuperBeets Black Cherry Powder is a delicious, easy way to promote increased Nitric Oxide production in the body. Feel the invigorating effects as your body converts the natural dietary nitrate & nitrite blend into Nitric Oxide, allowing for heart-healthy energy and blood pressure support.
  • Plant-Based, Clinically Studied Blood Pressure Support – HumanN SuperBeets powder helps relax and dilate your blood vessels, which supports nitric oxide production, circulation and healthy blood pressure. The clinically studied formula is patented and cannot be replicated by any other imitators.
  • Feel Energized For The Day – Support vital blood flow, blood pressure and nitric oxide production, which promotes increased energy levels to help power you through your day. It’s a plant-based, clean, smooth way to support vitality without caffeine or stimulants.
  • Beet Root Powder With A Flavorful Twist – Each serving of SuperBeets Black Cherry Powder delivers the functional benefit of 40 teaspoons of fresh beets, without the beet taste. The non-GMO, premium beets grown in the USA help unlock the power of healthy blood flow so you can feel invigorated throughout the day. Simply mix a teaspoon of SuperBeets beet root powder in 4-6 oz. of water or a smoothie to activate all of the circulation superfood benefits.
  • Trusted By 120+ Professional & college sports teams – With over 5 million sold, SuperBeets Black Cherry powder is a top seller for good reason. Unlike other beet root powders, each delicious scoop is backed by real science to deliver daily, plant-based, powerful cardiovascular support and nitric oxide production. We’re proud to know that pro & college sports teams have used SuperBeets beet root powder to win over 30 national championships.
SaleBestseller No. 9
C4 Sport Pre Workout Powder Blue Raspberry - Pre Workout Energy with 3g Creatine Monohydrate + 135mg Caffeine and Beta-Alanine Performance Blend - NSF Certified for Sport | 30 Servings
  • C4 PRE WORKOUT POWDER FOR MEN & WOMEN - America's Number 1 Selling Pre-Workout Brand has been trusted since 2011 with over 2 billion servings sold* Optimized for exercise to beat your personal best and crush your goals
  • BUILD MUSCLE & STRENGTH - Formulated with a nitrogen-containing compound designed to build lean muscle mass, maximize performance, and increase strength in all athletes - from pro to everyday
  • INCREASE REP COUNT - Formulated with CarnoSyn Beta-Alanine, a premium clinically studied beta-alanine, which has been studied to support muscular endurance and fight fatigue and may cause a harmless tingling sensation
  • TESTED & TRUSTED BY THIRD PARTIES - Proudly NSF Certified for Sport, an independent certification program recognized by the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), Major League Baseball, the National Hockey League and the Canadian Football League
  • DELICIOUS FLAVORS UNLIKE ANYTHING ON THE MARKET - Blue Raspberry, Fruit Punch, and Watermelon. Take one serving (1 scoop) of C4 Sport, mixed with 6-8 fl. oz. of water 20 - 30 minutes before training

Last update on 2022-05-08 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API